Transit-oriented development: Literature review and evaluation of TOD potential across 50 Chinese cities Journal of Transport and Land Use

Such a project could involve testing the questions with SQP software for validity and reliability and referring them back to a panel of experts for further revisions. Once established, the questions could then be tested in a pilot study, the results of which could be thoroughly analysed for non-response items, the extent of scalability, the structure of factors, correlations, etc. The results of the analysis could then be referred back to a panel of experts for final revisions, following which the city index review final questions could be constructed. These and numerous other studies point towards the importance of measuring the public perceptions of police. Knowing how the public feels about the police can help maintain public order, increase community-police cooperation, develop appropriate policing policies and practices, as well as concentrate police efforts where they are needed the most . Reduce crime and victimization.This is thought of as the primary and a most important dimension of police work.

However, notwithstanding declining crime rates, police have been increasingly called upon to address a wide range of non‑criminal calls for service, including social and mental health incidents . Programming must meet or exceed the options or incentives offered by the gang while eliminating the negative consequences attached to gang membership. A comprehensive response is required and it must offer a variety of strategies, elements and activities that can address the multiple risks and needs of at-risk and gang-involved youth.

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This circumstance becomes even more complicated when it comes to specific questions on police performance because the concepts that need to be measured are numerous and more complex. Much like in the example on the general question of satisfaction with police, a lot of specific questions are similar to each other in that they all measure similar concepts. However, the wording of the questions and the response categories, as well as the scale of the response categories are different across all of the questions, making them incomparable to each other and to the national average. For example, in one case the response category “somewhat ” is treated as a mid-point, whereas in other cases “somewhat ” is treated as an upper-tier response category. Further, while some odd-numbered scale questions have a true mid-point in the “neither…nor” style, a mid-point in some other cases is treated as “don’t know” category and is only recorded if such response is prompted by the respondent.

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  • A young woman’s main ‘capital’ on the streets is her measure of control and her reputation for handling herself, and those with a strong need for social acceptance by male gang members will do ‘whatever it takes’ to maintain close ties with male gang members (Petersen & Howell, 2013).
  • The survey was then administered through mail to a small suburban community in Virginia, U.S. A total of 374 questionnaires was sent out, and 138 were returned completed.
  • Prices increased amid capacity restrictions and higher costs incurred by firms for health and safety measures.
  • First, the work of the police is, by far, not the only influence on crime rates.

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Higher energy prices bolster headline inflation

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The data would need to consist of multiple specific questions that, at least on the surface, measure similar concepts. Similar to the approach taken by Maguire and Johnson , confirmatory factor analysis would then be used to group the specific questions into factors, which would aid the researcher in deriving the single measures that would be applied. There are many examples of specific performance questions that are being asked of police in contemporary public opinion surveys in Canada and the Western World . All examples, to a certain degree, measure police performance in the seven dimension of police work. Unfortunately, research in the area of validity and reliability of public opinion questions on police performance is lacking .

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Issues covered may include satisfaction with the work done by the police, the effectiveness with which police deal with social disorder and crime, whether individuals feel protected by the police, etc. Crime rates, along with the more sophisticated measure of the Crime Severity Index , are probably the oldest and the most traditional measures of the success of police work. The reasoning behind using crime rates as a measure of success is reflective of the common belief that reducing crime is a primary task of the police.

Over a decade ago, a thorough overview of the public image of police in the U.S. was conducted by a group of academics . In it, the authors called for the development of a national standardized research instrument called Uniform Public Opinion Poll on Policing . The process of development for such an instrument would cover the U.S. using standardized questions on public opinion of police that would be comparable across states and over time. However, if the project was to be implemented, the process of developing indicators to be used on the survey would have probably gone through a similar rigorous process of consultations and validations, such as the one undertaken by Jackson and colleagues in Europe .

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Practically all the police jurisdictions in Canada ask their own specific questions on perceptions of police performance. The questions could have been designed by the employees of the police services or by the polling firms responsible for the survey. There is a great deal of discrepancy among the specific police performance questions that are currently being asked; all the questions reviewed have different wording and categorizations. This allowed researchers responsible for the survey to compare the perceptions of residents of Regina and Edmonton of their local police to the national figures. No other comparisons can be made because of the disparity in the questions and the response categories.

What Are We Doing to Address Youth Gang Involvement?

The results of this assessment are called quality ratings, and are posted online for all parents to view. The Global Financial Centres Index report, published by Z/Yen Group, provides information about the future growth of the financial centres in the world. Stoddard, S. A., Whiteside, L., Zimmerman, M. A., Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., & Walton, M. A. The relationship between cumulative risk and promotive factors and violent behavior among urban adolescents. They should promote self-esteem, healthy assertive behaviour and self-reliance to build resilience against future victimization and provide opportunities for empowerment, growth and explorations of identity.

In police performance research, Mastrofski et al recorded and analyzed encounters between police officers and individuals to evaluate the behavior of police officers. Finally, because of the victimization of females in gangs relative to males, there may be more ‘crisis moments’ or opportunities for ‘hooks for change’ to occur (Grekul & LaRocque, 2011). Young women may recognize themselves to be victims of escalating violence and start to identify the negative consequences related to harm due to violence.

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A gang can be a source of empathy and emotional support to its members, and provide individuals with a sense of belonging. Membership can offer a source of self-esteem and identity, as well as companionship and support. In this way the gang can become a substitute family for its members, through which they can fulfill personal needs. Statistics Canada continues to work with price experts, other national statistical organizations and partners to ensure that the data and methods used in the calculation of the official CPI are aligned with international standards and best practices.

It is clear that general questions on police performance will provide nothing more than vague ideas regarding how citizens feel about the police. The more general the question, the more positive responses tend to be , as shown in the example of “favourable views of” and “confidence in” the police. What is mainly lacking in the general questions, however, is the understanding of specifically why citizens are happy or unhappy when it comes to police performance.

Theoretical and empirical research and evaluation efforts continue with the goal of better understanding and responding to this issue. Advances have been made in defining the nature of youth gangs and their activities, the motivations for joining, and the risk and protective factors that influence involvement in a gang lifestyle. Greater insight into specific risk factors, pathways to involvement and desistance, and guidance for prevention and intervention efforts can assist in the future development of solutions to address youth gang involvement and gang-related activities in Canada. Public Safety Canada continues to support effective youth gang prevention and intervention strategies that are known to work based on empirical evidence and lessons learned from past implementation and evaluation experiences. More research into either testing the existing questions or creating new standardized questions is required to improve the measurement of public satisfaction with the services provided by the police in Canada. A project similar to the creation of European indicators of trust in justice or the UPOPP is one way to provide solid data for police performance measurement.

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These concerns can act as one of the reasons they decide to end their affiliations with their gangs and to move on with their lives. Key to this is often either personal experiences as direct victims of violent acts or the witnessing of violent attacks on fellow gang members (Aulakh, 2008; Kelly, 2015; Nimmo, 2001). On occasion, alternative descriptions developed of ‘tomboys’ or ‘gang girls’ (Archer & Grascia, 2006; Tobin, 2008). Some young women are respected as being tough individuals and are seen as an asset to the gang. This also limits the possibility of accepting what Klein and Maxson refer to as ‘conventional wisdoms’ and assuming that what we learn about successful gang programming in one location can be applied to other locations.

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The most recent report reviews 114 financial centres, and includes measures provided by third party organizations including the United Nations, World Economic Forum, World Wide Web Foundation, World Bank, Transparency International. The report also includes online responses from financial professionals across the world. Footnote 1 The gang classification is sometimes broadly extended to include prison gang, motorcycle gang, terrorist gang or criminal gang . The focus of this research report is specifically on the ‘street level’ youth gang.

Researchers have thus resorted to indirect measures of police performance such as surveys, direct observations, and situational studies and independent testing. It is nearly impossible to correct for the human errors or at-source manipulation of data of the direct measures of police performance. Errors in recording arrest data, for example, cannot be corrected unless the error is detected early in the process. Likewise, manipulation of clearance rates by a police jurisdiction cannot be corrected unless the data is verified by an independent authority. However, it may be possible to adjust the measures through the application of various statistical controls and weights . Depending on the availability of data, the size and the social conditions of the community served by the police could be controlled for during the analysis.

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